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Bolivian Ram
Bolivian Ram
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-79F; pH 6.5-7.5; KH 0-10
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Tan
Temperament: Peaceful
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Bolivia, Brazil, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Bolivian Ram, also called the Butterfly Ram and the Red Ram, is a social fish that will form pairs and often remains "faithful" to each other. Bolivian Rams are golden brown in color with reddish highlights on the dorsal and caudal fins and pearly turquoise-blue highlights on the pelvic and anal fins. A black 'spot' is in the center of the body and a black line runs from the top of the eye to the bottom of the head.

The Bolivian Ram requires a tank of 30 gallons minimum. The tank should have several dense plant groups and plenty of open swimming space. The Bolivian Ram also requires a few caves in which to hide in and stones to spawn on. Being a peaceful fish, the Bolivian Ram makes a wonderful addition to the community tank, is compatible with other peaceful fish.

The Bolivian Ram is an egg layer that prefers soft to medium hardness, neutral pH and slightly raised water temperatures (77-82F). Peat should be added to the water. The female will lay up to 200 eggs on stones and occasionally, in depressions. Both the male and female share the rearing of the fry, and it has been reported that they will take them into their mouths to protect them like a mouth brooder. Care should be taken so that the fry are not sucked into the filter.

The Bolivian Ram is an omnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Cupid
Green Terror
Green Terrors are South American Cichlids originating in still waters in Peru and Ecuador.  Subspecies include the gold saum and the white saum.  Their color changes to green at maturity for both males and females, if they have a proper diet and water conditions.  Generally the males are brighter, while females are darker and somewhat smaller than the males.  Numerous dark spots run in parallel lines across the body. The tail is often the brightest area and can be edged in reddish orange.  The males develop a broad forehead with a pronounced hump.

Green Terrors  are very aggressive and should not be kept with their own kind - there is good reasoning behind their name.  A pair of Green Terrors must be watched very carefully if there are other cichlids in the tank, as the Terrors will kill other inhabitants when they begin to breed.  A Green Terror should be kept in a tank of at least 50 gallons.  A single Green Terror in a tank can act as a calming force on other aggressive species.  The tank should be well planted and provide rocks, driftwood, caves and hiding areas.  Clay pots work very well.  Like most Cichlids, Green Terrors will accept a variety of foods, including flake foods, freeze dried bloodworms and Cichlid pellets.

Mature males establish and control a territory.  During breeding, aggression toward the female and other species is extreme.  Hundreds of eggs are fertilized against a clean vertical surface.  Both parents will aggressively defend the young until the fry reach an age where the parents can't control them.

 Scientific Name:   Aequidens rivulatus
 Family:   Cichlid
 Temperature:   20 - 27 C; 68 - 80 F
 PH   6.5 - 7.5
 Size:    23 cm; 9 inches
 Life Span:    10 years
 Breeding:    Normal. Egg Layer

Compatibility:

Blood Parrot, Blue Jack Dempsey, Convict Cichlid, Firemouth Cichlid, Gold Severum, Green Severum, Jack Dempsey, Jewel Cichlid, Pike Cichlid, Pleco (Common), Salvini Cichlid, Texas Cichlid.
 
Green Terror
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-80F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 8"
Color Form: Bright Blue, Green, White
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Green Terror is a beautifully marked cichlid. Its body is a greenish white with many electric blue spots on the chin area. The males of this species have a longer tail fin, which is outlined in red.

The Green Terror requires an aquarium of at least 50 gallons, with a sandy bottom, and rock work that will provide plenty of hiding spots. Live plants should be planted in pots to protect the roots from these fish. The Green Terror is generally peaceful with other fish of similar size, but can get more territorial as it matures.

The Green Terror is an open-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. The Green Terror readily pairs and the female will take the bigger role in raising the fry. The female will lay the eggs on a cleaned, flat rock. They will spawn about every two weeks if the young are removed from the aquarium.

The Green Terror is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Oscar
The Oscar orginates from the Amazon River basin in Peru, Colombia, Brazil and French Guiana. It is also known as the velvet cichlid and the marble cichlid. The latin name Astronotus means ray back, while ocellatus refers to the eyespot on the base of the tail. Oscars have been bred into a variety of colors including albino, red, tiger and black. They also have been bred into a long fin variety. Oscars are narrow in width with an oval shape, a large mouth and a protruding jaw. Oscars are very hardy and they grow quite quickly when young. They are slow moving, but are capable of swimming rapidly. Despite their large size and compatibility problems, discussed below, Oscars are a very popular aquarium fish. They demonstrate intelligence and personality to their owners that make them a favorite. They will recognize their owner and can be fed from the hand.

The general recommendation is to keep either one Oscar or a school of at least 6. A single Oscar will be very lonely, while groups of less than 6 will result in deaths inflicted by aggression. Following these guidelines, a tank of around 500 gallons is the best environment for Oscars. If you are able to determine a compatible pair, a 100 gallon tank is recommended. The tank should have dim lighting and it should be covered to prevent jumping out. Plants will be destroyed, so driftwood and rocks are recommended. Floating plants and plastic toys will be played with. Clean water is extremely important. Oscars are susceptible to Hole in the Head Disease. This condition, caused by the protozoan Hexamita, can be prevented by maintaining excellent water quality and a varied diet. Oscars will eat almost anything including cichlid pellets, cichlid flakes, earthworms, bloodworm, shrimp, bugs, frozen foods, krill, ghost shrimp, feeder fish, crayfish and insect larvae. Feeder fish are not usually recommended due to the risk of bringing disease into the aquarium and also because a diet of live fish can increase aggression.

Oscars basically aren’t compatible with other fish, however we have heard of some success with silver dollars, bala sharks, firemouths, texas cichlids, jack dempseys, blue acara, clown loaches, pictus catfish, African knifefish, plecostomus, pacus, gars and tin foil barbs. One of the main criteria for compatibility will be size, as Oscars will eat any other fish that it can fit in its mouth.  More specifically, diameter is an issue, as Oscars can swallow some very long plecos over an extended period time.

Oscars are difficult to breed, mainly because it is hard to determine sexes. With the size constraint, it becomes a challenge to raise enough Oscars to be able to watch them pair off. The female will lay hundreds of eggs on a clean surface, which also makes raising the fry a challenge. 

 Scientific Name:   Astronotus ocellatus
 Family:   Cichlid
 Temperature:   22 - 26 C; 72 - 79 F
 PH   6.0 - 8.0
 Size:    33 cm; 13 inches
 Life Span:    10 years
 Breeding: 
  Difficult, Egg Layer

Compatibility:

Possible tank mates are appropriately sized African knifefish, bala sharks, blue acara, clown loaches, firemouths, jack dempseys, pacus, pictus catfish, plecostomus, silver dollars, texas cichlids and tin foil barbs. 

Further Oscar Info

Tiger Oscar

(Astronotus ocellatus)
Tiger Oscar
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.0-8.0; KH 5-19
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Black, Orange, Red
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Tiger Oscar is a color variation of Astronotus ocellatus Oscar. It is also known as the Marble Cichlid or the Velvet Cichlid and is a colorful addition to a large aquarium. The Tiger Oscar has a blue-black background with an orange-red pattern. The dorsal fin has an eyespot that is very brightly colored. They will form a pair, make a nuclear family and are generally peaceful in nature. It is hard to tell the difference between the male and females, but during spawning the female has obvious genital papilla.

The Tiger Oscar requires a large aquarium of at least 70 gallons with a deep sand bottom and a few large rocks. They will dig up plants; so any that are in the tank should be potted with the root surfaces covered with rocks. Using floating plants is a good compromise to this problem. Oscars are hearty eaters and should only be kept with other fish that are of the same size, as they will eat any that are smaller than themselves.

A large tank should be used for breeding, as much as 100 gallons if possible. The Tiger Oscar will spawn in soft or hard water as long as it is clean and clear and has a temperature between 79-86F. The female will lay from 1,000-2,000 eggs on rocks that have been carefully cleaned. The eggs are opaque at first, turning transparent in 24 hours. The brood will be carefully guarded and cared for and the fry will be kept in pits and may even be covered. When they are free-swimming, the fry should be fed Cyclops. Sometimes the fry will cling to their parents.

The Tiger Oscar is a carnivore that is a predaceous and hearty eater. Oscars will eat a variety of meaty foods, including small fish and earthworms, Cichlid pellets, larger flake food, ocean plankton, bloodworms, and tubifex worms.

Zebra Oscar

(Astronotus ocellatus)
Zebra Oscar
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.0-8.0; KH 5-19
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Black, Gray, White
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Zebra Oscar is a color variation of Astronotus ocellatus Oscar. It is also known as the Marble Cichlid or the Velvet Cichlid and is a colorful addition to a large aquarium. The Zebra Oscar is black and white with gray shading and an eyespot on the dorsal fin. They will form a pair, make a nuclear family and are generally peaceful in nature. It is hard to tell the difference between the male and females, but during spawning the female has obvious genital papilla.

The Zebra Oscar requires a large aquarium of at least 70 gallons with a deep sand bottom and a few large rocks. They will dig up plants; so any that are in the tank should be potted with the root surfaces covered with rocks. Using floating plants is a good compromise to this problem. Oscars are hearty eaters and should only be kept with other fish that are of the same size, as they will eat any that are smaller than themselves.

A large tank should be used for breeding, as much as 100 gallons if possible. The Zebra Oscar will spawn in soft or hard water as long as it is clean and clear and has a temperature between 79-86F. The female will lay from 1,000-2,000 eggs on rocks that have been carefully cleaned. The eggs are opaque at first, turning transparent in 24 hours. The brood will be carefully guarded and cared for and the fry will be kept in pits and may even be covered. When they are free-swimming, the fry should be fed Cyclops. Sometimes the fry will cling to their parents.

The Zebra Oscar is a carnivore that is a predaceous and hearty eater. Oscars will eat a variety of meaty foods, including small fish and earthworms, Cichlid pellets, larger flake food, ocean plankton, bloodworms, and tubifex worms.

Albino Oscar

(Astronotus ocellatus)
Albino Oscar
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.0-8.0; KH 5-19
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Orange, Peach, Pink
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Albino Oscar is a color variation of Astronotus ocellatus Oscar. It is also known as the Marble Cichlid or the Velvet Cichlid and makes a great addition to a large aquarium. The Albino Oscar is pale orange-pink in color and may be missing the eyespot. They will form a pair, make a nuclear family, and are generally peaceful in nature. It is hard to tell the difference between the male and females, but during spawning the female has obvious genital papilla.

The Albino Oscar requires a large aquarium of at least 70 gallons with a deep sand bottom and a few large rocks. They will dig up plants; so any that are in the tank should be potted with the root surfaces covered with rocks. Using floating plants is a good compromise to this problem. Oscars are hearty eaters and should only be kept with other fish that are of the same size, as they will eat any that are smaller than themselves.

A large tank should be used for breeding, as much as 100 gallons if possible. The Albino Oscar will spawn in soft or hard water as long as it is clean and clear and has a temperature between 79-86F. The female will lay from 1,000-2,000 eggs on rocks that have been carefully cleaned. The eggs are opaque at first, turning transparent in 24 hours. The brood will be carefully guarded and cared for and the fry will be kept in pits and may even be covered. When they are free-swimming, the fry should be fed Cyclops. Sometimes the fry will cling to their parents.

The Albino Oscar is a carnivore that is a predaceous and hearty eater. Oscars will eat a variety of meaty foods, including small fish, larger flake food, ocean plankton, bloodworms, and tubifex worms.

Red Oscar

(Astronotus ocellatus)
Red Oscar
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.0-8.0; KH 5-19
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Orange, Red
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Red Oscar is a color variation of Astronotus ocellatus Oscar. It is also known as the Marble Cichlid or the Velvet Cichlid and is a colorful addition to a large aquarium. The Red Oscar is orange-red with dark gray shading and an eyespot on the dorsal fin. They will form a pair, make a nuclear family and are generally peaceful in nature. It is hard to tell the difference between the male and females, but during spawning the female has obvious genital papilla.

The Red Oscar requires a large aquarium of at least 70 gallons with a deep sand bottom and a few large rocks. They will dig up plants; so any that are in the tank should be potted with the root surfaces covered with rocks. Using floating plants is a good compromise to this problem. Oscars are hearty eaters and should only be kept with other fish that are of the same size, as they will eat any that are smaller than themselves.

A large tank should be used for breeding, as much as 100 gallons if possible. The Red Oscar will spawn in soft or hard water as long as it is clean and clear and has a temperature between 79-86F. The female will lay from 1,000-2,000 eggs on rocks that have been carefully cleaned. The eggs are opaque at first, turning transparent in 24 hours. The brood will be carefully guarded and cared for and the fry will be kept in pits and may even be covered. When they are free-swimming, the fry should be fed Cyclops. Sometimes the fry will cling to their parents.

The Red Oscar is a carnivore that is a predaceous and hearty eater. Oscars will eat a variety of meaty foods, including small fish and earthworms, Cichlid pellets, larger flake food, ocean plankton, bloodworms, and tubifex worms.

Red Hump Eartheater
Green Severum
Severum Cichlids are South American Cichlids from the northern Amazon region of Brazil.  They are known by the scientific name Heros severus and also by the name Cichlasoma severum.  Their common names include the Banded Cichlid, Hero Cichlid and the Severum.  They have a body shape similar to a discus.  There are two main color variations, with the Gold Severum having been developed from the Green Severum.  The Gold Severum has been been bred to a pale yellow iridescent color without the original distinctive dark bands.  The Green Severum has a greenish body with several horizontal bands on its body There are also blue variations.   Severums will eat flake foods, blood worms, brine shrimp and cichlid sticks.  They can become friendly with the person who feeds them.

Severum can be combined with other New World Cichlids in a tank of at least 50 gallons.  They are less aggressive than some other South American Cichlids, so it is possible to keep catfish with them.  The tank should be well planted and well rooted, as they like the lower levels of the tank.  Plastic plants may be less frustrating to provide.  The tank should have rocks and hiding areas, but should also have open areas for swimming.  It should have a soft substrate for digging.  The Severum should be kept with other fish of the same approximate size and temperament.

Severums are more difficult to breed than most New World Cichlids, because they do not form pairs as readily and the males are difficult to distinguish from the females.  Like most cichlids they spawn on clean horizontal surfaces and are very good parents.

 Scientific Name:   Heros severus
 Family:   Cichlid
 Temperature:   23 - 29 C; 72 - 83 F
 PH   5.0 - 6.5
 Size:    20 cm; 8 inches
 Life Span:    10 years
 Breeding: 
  Difficult, Egg Layer

Compatibility:

New World Cichlids such as the Firemouth, Green Terror, Salvini, Texas and Blood Parrot.  Also Plecos.
Green Severum
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 73-77F; pH 6.0-6.5; KH 4-5
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 8"
Color Form: Cream, Green
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, Northern South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Green Severum, also known as the Banded Cichlid, is a color variation of Heros severus Severum. Severum have an iridescent sheen to their scales and off-white to green background color. Black spots travel along the lower body, starting behind the pectoral fin and a black band reaches across the caudal end of the body. The Green Severum is a trusting fish, and will often accept food directly from their owner's hand.

The Green Severum requires a 30 gallon or larger tank that is at least 40 inches long and 20 inches tall. The larger the tank the better. They prefer a lightly-planted tank with a soft bottom and a few rooted plants. Adding a few large rocks would be appropriate as long as there is still plenty of open room for swimming and the water is not affected. Severum can be aggressive when spawning, and for this reason should only be housed with other semi-aggressive fish.

Differentiating between the male and female is very difficult. Positive identification can only be made after close examination of the genital papillae. The males normally have pointed fins and reddish-brown spots and "worm-like" markings on their heads. Females usually have a dark patch on the dorsal fin. The Green Severum does not pair as readily as other South American Cichlids, and may take a bit longer. Providing the male with a choice of females will help. An open breeder, the female can lay as many as 1,000 eggs on rocks. The water should be mildly acidic, soft with a pH of 6.0-6.5 and a hardness of dH 5. The temperature should range from 77-82F. The Green Severum carefully tends to its fry.

The Green Severum is a carnivore and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Blood Parrot
The following information is provided to make you aware of the chemical dyes used to create the colors of this recently popular fish.  The Blood Parrot originated from hybrid breeding of cichlids in Taiwan in the late 1980s.  It is distinct from the freshwater Parrot Cichlids (Hoplarchus Psittacus) and the saltwater Parrot Fish (Callyodon fasciatus).  It has no scientific name, since it is not a species that produces offspring.

The parentage of the Blood Parrot is a secret hidden away with the breeders of Taiwan.  The most common suggestions for the two parents are:

  • Midas Cichlid (Cichlasoma citrinellum) and the Redhead Cichlid (Cichlasoma synspilum),

  • Severum (Heros severus) with the Red Devil (Cichlasoma erythraeum)

The Blood Parrot has some disturbing deformities.  They have a beak, which gives rise to their “parrot” name.  They are unable to fully close their mouth, but they can eat easily from the surface of the water.  The iris of their eyes is overly large. They have deformed spines, which produces a unique shape. They also have an awkward swimming pattern.

The Red Blood Parrot is orange, while the Purple Blood Parrot is bright red to purple.  The Love Heart has no tail.  There are also many variations of color which are produced through dipping these fish in stripping chemicals and then in brightly colored dyes.  This stunts the growth and decreases the life span of the fish.  Colors last for 4 – 6 weeks.  See the Glass Fish and the Blackskirt Tetra for information on other dyed fish.

Blood Parrots should be provided lots of open space and also hiding places and caves to establish as their territory.  Dim lighting is best.  They love to dig in the substrate, so soft gravel should be chosen.  Higher temperatures can bring out their color.  They will eat a variety of foods including flake, live, frozen, freeze dried foods and cichlid pellets.  When Blood Parrots are kept together they will frequently fight during the day and sleep in the same cave at night.

Breeding the Blood Parrot should be about as easy as breeding a mule.  It’s not going to happen between true blood parrots. That’s why they don’t have a scientific name.  However there is enough uncertainty among variations that breeding of some types of Blood Parrot are said to occur.  You can apparently breed a Blood Parrot with a Convict Cichlid though and produce Jelly Bean and Bubblegum Parrots.  These are also dyed bright colors.

 Scientific Name:   None
 Family:   Cichlid
 Temperature:   22 - 28 C; 72 - 82 F
 PH   6.5 - 7.0
 Size:    20 cm; 8 inches
 Life Span:    10 years
 Breeding: 
  Impossible, Egg Layer

Compatibility:

Angelfish, Corydoras, Glass Catfish, Kuhli Loach, Swordtails, Tetras, Plecos, Silver Dollars

German Blue Ram

(Microgeophagus ramirezi)
  Click here for a larger image
German Blue Ram
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-79F; pH 5.0-7.0; KH 5-12
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Neon Blue, Orange, Red, Yellow
Temperament: Peaceful
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, Thailand
Family: Cichlidae

The German Blue Ram, is a social fish that will form pairs and often remains "faithful" to each other. German Blue Rams have an orange face, a red/yellow belly, and neon blue towards the back half of the body.

The German Blue Ram requires a tank of 20 gallons, minimum. The tank should have several dense plant groups and plenty of open swimming space. The German Blue Ram will also need a few caves in which to hide in and stones to spawn on. Being a peaceful fish, the German Blue Ram makes a wonderful addition to the community tank. However, if kept in an aquarium that lacks hiding places for this fish, they may become aggressive toward small tankmates.

The German Blue Ram is an egg layer that prefers soft to medium hardness, neutral pH and slightly raised water temperatures (77-82F). Peat should be added to the water. The female will lay up to 200 eggs on stones and occasionally, in depressions. Both the male and female share the rearing of the fry, and it has been reported that they will take them into their mouths to protect them like a mouth brooder. Care should be taken so that the fry are not sucked into the filter.

Firemouth Cichlid

(Thorichthys meeki)
  Click here for a larger image
Firemouth Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 70-75F; pH 6.0-7.5; KH 4-10
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 6"
Color Form: Red, Turquoise
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Firemouth Cichlid is a beautiful cichlid that is somewhat territorial, especially during spawning. Their background color is a pearlescent turquoise-blue with red edging the scales. The throat and breast are red in color, ranging from a brick shade to a fiery red. There is a series of black marks running along the body, starting behind the eye, extending to the base of the caudal fin. The membranes of the fins have turquoise spots and the dorsal fin is edged in red. The pelvic and anal fins are edged in black. They form pairs, make a nuclear family and are excellent parents.

The Firemouth Cichlid requires a tank of a minimum of 30 gallons, with a fine sand bottom for burrowing and plenty of open swimming room. Plants should be hardy, like Sagittaria, and potted with their root surfaces protected. There should also be rocks available, as they like to hide among the rocks and roots. They do get territorial during spawning and will harass smaller tank mates of their own species, so keeping fish that are similar in size is recommended. When attempting to threaten members of their same species, the Firemouth Cichlid will inflate a throat sac and extend its gill covers in an aggressive stance.

The females are less brightly colored than the males and have a blunt genital papilla. The male also has sharply pointed dorsal and anal fins. Firemouth Cichlids make excellent parents, and both the male and female share in the rearing of the fry. After carefully cleaning the rocks in the tank, the female will deposit 100-500 eggs on them. The fry are protected in pits at the floor of the tank and moved several times. The fry may be fed newly hatched brine shrimp and finely crushed flakes. The Firemouth Cichlid parents may raise several broods in a year.

The Firemouth Cichlid is omnivorous, and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Green Texas Cichlid

(Herichthys carpinte)
Green Texas Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 75-78F; pH 6.9-7.1; KH 14-16
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Green
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised
Family: Cichlidae

The Green Texas Cichlid, also known as the Pearlscale Cichlid, is considered to be an amiable fish. A pearly-green in color, the Green Texas Cichlid male can grow to an impressive 12 inches long. They bond and form pairs after intense jaw locking. While rearing the fry, both parents turn a dark, almost black color with the exception of a right-angle triangular spot behind the pectoral fin.

Green Texas Cichlids require a tank of at least 50 gallons with lots of room to swim and adequate hiding spots. Most plants that are added to the aquarium will be uprooted as they dig, so floating plants may be more appropriate. They are very adaptable to differences in water chemistry. Being aggressive in nature, the Green Texas Cichlid should only be housed with more aggressive fish that are close to the same size.

The Green Texas Cichlid is an open breeder that is very prolific. Maturity is attained when males reach approximately 4 inches in length and the female 3 inches. They are egg layers and the larvae hatch 4 days after spawning. They are free-swimming after another 4-6 days and both parents will protect the fry. Juveniles may be susceptible to intestinal diseases.

The Green Texas Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Red Devil

(Amphilophus labiatus)
Red Devil
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.8-7.2
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Peach, Yellow
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Red Devil is often referred to as the Midas Cichlid and the Red Devil Cichlid. The Red Devil's main background color is peach to yellow with some specimens having a white underside. The fins are often white or highlighted in white.

The Red Devil requires a tank of 50 gallons or more, with plenty of room to swim as well as stones for hiding. Because it is a digger, it is best to put the rocks on the bottom of the tank and not stacked. If stacked they could be knocked off causing damage to the fish. The Red Devil has a very aggressive personality, so choose his tank mates carefully. Red Devils should only be housed with other fish that can defend themselves.

An open spawner, Red Devils are not particular about their spawning substrate. Spawning will occur on horizontal, slanted, or vertical hard surfaces, with as many as 1,000 eggs being dropped at a time. The Red Devil forms pairs, making a nuclear family, with both parents caring for the fry. Larvae hatch after 3 days and are placed in pits for protection. In an additional 5 days the larvae are free-swimming, and the young eat a mucous secretion produced from the skin of the parents.

The Red Devil is an omnivore. They prefer a balanced diet of foods such as Cichlid pellets, ocean plankton, quality flake food, and occasional brine shrimp or bloodworms.

Rainbow Cichlid

(Herotilapia multispinosa)
Rainbow Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 5"
Color Form: Gold, Yellow
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Central America
Family: Cichlidae

The Rainbow Cichlid is capable of altering colors according to its moods. The background color is a lemon yellow to golden color, with a horizontal black bar running from just behind the eyes to the base of the caudal fin. When showing its most brilliant coloration, usually during breeding, the scales may have alternating rows of blue on the latter half of the body and the edges of the anal, pectoral, and dorsal fins, and may also have a brilliant blue tint. The Rainbow Cichlid, Herotilapia multispinosa genus is monotypic, meaning it is the only species in this genus.

The Rainbow Cichlid requires a minimum tank of 50 gallons with a fine gravel bottom, and rocks and roots for hiding. Hardy, well-rooted plants are recommended, as well as upturned pots and shards for additional hiding places. The Rainbow Cichlid does not usually burrow, so most plantscapes should stay in place. They are a peaceful fish that is territorial and rarely aggressive, except during spawning. It can easily be kept with other medium-sized cichlids such as Convicts, Firemouths, and Parrots.

It is difficult to differentiate between the male and female Rainbow Cichlid. The male tends to be larger and longer with pointed anal and dorsal fins. The female has a short ovipositor. They will form lasting pairs and make a nuclear family. The fry are usually well cared for, but the parents may eat some of them. Water should be neutral with soft to medium hardness, (pH approximately 7.0, dH 5-10) and a temperature of 79-81F. Rainbow Cichlids are open breeders and the female will drop from 600-1,000 eggs on rocks and roots. The female who will circulate water over the eggs by fanning them with her fins, carefully guarding them in pits.

Rainbow Cichlids are omnivores, and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Pink Convict Cichlid

(Archocentrus nigrofasciatus)
Pink Convict Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 68-73F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 6"
Color Form: Pink, White
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Central America
Family: Cichlidae

The Pink Convict Cichlid is a pseudo-albino of the Archocentrus nigrofasciatus Convict Cichlid. Sometimes called Zebra Cichlid or Convict Cichlid, this fish is monotone in color, with the female having an orange patch on her stomach. The male is larger, monotone, has a steeper forehead and longer fins. As it ages, the male will acquire a fatty lump on the forehead. A striking addition to any aquarium, they are not recommended for the community tank due to their aggressive tendencies.

The Pink Convict Cichlid requires a minimum tank of 30 gallons with a gravel bottom, rocks and plenty of hiding places among the rocks or some inverted pots. Floating plants are recommended as a form of cover. Because of their aggressive nature, Pink Convict Cichlids should only be housed with other more aggressive fish of the same size or larger.

The Pink Convict Cichlid is a cave-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. To promote breeding increase the water temperature to between 75-79F. Some females will spawn between a cave and an open area. The Pink Convict Cichlid readily pairs and forms a patriarch/matriarch family and both the male and female will care for the young. The fry will respond to signals from both the male and the female.

The Pink Convict Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Black Convict Cichlid

(Archocentrus nigrofasciatus)
Black Convict Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 68-73F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 6"
Color Form: Black, Gray
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Central America
Family: Cichlidae

The Black Convict Cichlid is a beautifully marked cichlid. Sometimes called Zebra Cichlid or Convict Cichlid, this fish has a pattern of black stripes on a grayish background and a greenish tint on the fins. The female has orange scales on her lower body and dorsal fins and the male is larger, less colorful, has a steeper forehead and longer fins. As it ages, the male will acquire a fatty lump on the forehead. A stunning addition to any aquarium, they are not recommended for the community tank due to their aggressive tendencies.

The Black Convict Cichlid requires a 30 gallon minimum tank, with a gravel bottom, rocks and plenty of hiding places among the rocks or some inverted pots. Floating plants are recommended as a form of cover. Because of their aggressive nature, Black Convict Cichlids should only be housed with other more aggressive fish of the same size or larger.

The Black Convict Cichlid is a cave-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. To promote breeding, increase the water temperature between 75-79F. Some females will spawn between a cave and an open area. The Black Convict Cichlid readily pairs and forms a patriarch/matriarch family and both the male and female will care for the young. The fry will respond to signals from both the male and the female.

The Black Convict Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Gold Severum

(Heros serverus)
Gold Severum
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 73-77F; pH 6.0-6.5; KH 4-5
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 8"
Color Form: Cream, Gold
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, Northern South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Gold Severum, also known as the Banded Cichlid, is a color variation of Heros severus Severum. Severum have an iridescent sheen to their scales and off-white to gold background color. The Gold Severum is a trusting fish, and will often accept food directly from their owner's hand.

The Gold Severum requires a 30 gallon or larger tank that is at least 40 inches long and 20 inches tall. The larger the tank the better. They prefer a lightly-planted tank with a soft bottom and a few rooted plants. Adding a few large rocks would be appropriate as long as there is still plenty of open room for swimming. The Gold Severum can be aggressive when spawning, and for this reason should only be housed with other semi-aggressive fish.

Differentiating between the male and female is very difficult. Positive identification can only be made after close examination of the genital papillae. The Gold Severum does not pair as readily as other South American Cichlids, and may take a bit longer. Providing the male with a choice of females will help. An open breeder, the female can lay as many as 1,000 eggs on rocks. The water should be mildly acidic, soft with a pH of 6.0-6.5 and a hardness of dH 5. The temperature should range from 77-82F. The Gold Severum carefully tends to its fry.

The Gold Severum is a carnivore and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Assorted Apistogramma

(Apistogramma sp.)
Assorted Apistogramma
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 5.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Various Colorations
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Amazon, Guyana, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Apistogramma, commonly known as the Dwarf Cichlid, is a dainty, often brightly colored cichlid. This genus contains approximately 70 species, 20 of which are still waiting for scientific evaluation.

The Apistogramma should be kept in a tank that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, the Apistogramma is also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish.

The Apistogramma is an egg layer that prefers to spawn in caves. If the female is not ready to breed when the male is, he will harass her until she is. The female will reciprocate the male's behavior once the eggs are laid if she feels that the cave is too cramped.

The Apistogramma is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid

(Apistogramma cacatuoides)
Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 5.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Black, Bright Red
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Apistogramma cacatuoides is commonly known as the Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid, Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid or Big Mouth Apistogramma. The Apistogramma originates in the streams and backwaters of South America. This strain has been selectively bred for its brilliant red and black coloration. The body of these fish is elongated, with a prominent dorsal fin. The dorsal fin as well as the tail, has a striking red and black coloration.

The Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid should be kept in an aquarium that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, the Apistogramma is also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish. They require good water conditions, and regular water changes are a must.

The Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid is an egg layer that prefers to spawn in caves. Once the female has laid her eggs, the male will follow to fertilize them. After fertilization, the male then leaves the brood for the female to tend to. The fry will be free swimming within seven to ten days, at which time they should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp. They are a fast growing species, and the fry will reach sexual maturity in about five months.

The Double Full Red Cockatoo Cichlid is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Salvini Cichlid

(Nandopsis salvini)
Salvini Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-79F; pH 7.0-8.0; KH 9-11
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 6"
Color Form: Yellow
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Guatemala, Honduras, Southern Mexico
Family: Cichlidae

The Salvini Cichlid, also known as the Tricolor Cichlid and the Yellow Belly Cichlid, is a brightly colored cichlid from the lakes and rivers of southern Mexico and northern Central America. They have a bright yellow body with two blotchy dark lines running from the eyes to the caudal fin and turquoise-blue dots scattered over the body. The fins are long and have a turquoise-blue sheen to them. A bright red coloring is seen in the anal fins and on the body behind the pectoral fin, as well as edging the caudal fin. The head has approximately four horizontal stripes running along the forehead.

Salvini Cichlids require a tank of at least 50 gallons with a fine gravel or sand bottom. It does not burrow or destroy plants, which are recommended to use as territories. The Salvini Cichlid should be provided with numerous rocks and roots for use as hiding places. Plenty of room should be left for open swimming. They may be housed with smaller fish that are also more aggressive, but be aware, they are territorial and will bite others.

The males have pointed fins which is one way to distinguish between the sexes. Salvini Cichlids make excellent parents, and both the male and female share in the rearing of the fry. After carefully cleaning the rocks in the tank, the female will deposit up to 500 eggs.

Salvini Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Festivum Cichlid

(Cichlasoma festivum)
Festivum Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 6"
Color Form: Black, Green, Red, Silver
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Festivum Cichlid is originally from the backwaters of the Amazon basin of South America and is now being captive bred. The coloration of this fish ranges from silver on the bottom half to green on the back of the fish. A large black stripe runs from the reddish eye back towards the dorsal fin.

The Festivum Cichlid requires a minimum tank of 50 gallons with a fine gravel bottom, and rocks and roots for hiding. Hardy, well-rooted plants are recommended, as well as upturned pots and shards for additional hiding places. The Festivum Cichlid does not usually burrow, so most plantscapes should stay in place. They are a peaceful fish that is territorial and rarely aggressive, except during spawning. It can easily be kept with other medium-sized cichlids such as Convicts, Firemouths, and Parrots.

It is difficult to differentiate between the male and female Festivum Cichlid. The male tends to be larger and longer with pointed anal and dorsal fins. The female has a short ovipositor. They will form lasting pairs and make a nuclear family. The fry are usually well cared for, but the parents may eat some of them. Water should be neutral with soft to medium hardness, (pH approximately 7.0, dH 5-10) and a temperature of 72-77F. Festivum Cichlids are open breeders and the female will drop from 600-1,000 eggs on rocks and roots. The female who will circulate water over the eggs by fanning them with her fins, carefully guarding them in pits.

Festivum Cichlids are omnivores, and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Managuense Cichlid

(Nandopsis managuense)
Managuense Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 73-77F; pH 7.0-7.8; KH 10-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1' 6"
Color Form: Black, Gold, Silver
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua
Family: Cichlidae

The Managuense Cichlid, also known as the Aztec Cichlid and the Jaguar Cichlid, is a beautifully marked cichlid. Young Managuense Cichlids are dull silver/gold with spots running along their bodies. As they mature the dullness is even greater, until sexually mature when drab blotches become darker, eventually turning black with an irregular pattern like that of the jaguar cat. The background color is pearly with a light purple cast. These spots are less extreme in females. The lower lip often extends up over the upper lip, sometimes revealing some of the front teeth.

As a juvenile, the Managuense Cichlid can be housed in a 50 gallon minimum aquarium. The adult requires an aquarium no smaller then 70 gallons. They require plenty of open swimming room, as well as places to hide. The bottom of the tank should be coarse gravel, without plants, as the Managuense Cichlid is a burrower and will tear up plants.

Although this cichlid is a predator, it can be housed with other large cichlids, but sometimes will not tolerate other cichlids that are similar in color. Any fish that will fit into its mouth should not be kept in the same aquarium with the Managuense Cichlid.

The male is generally larger and has pointed dorsal and anal fins as well as being more brightly colored. Breeding in an aquarium is often difficult but Managuense Cichlids are excellent parents and form nuclear families. The female can spawn up to 5,000 yellow eggs.

The Managuense Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Orange Cockatoo Cichlid

(Apistogramma cacatuoides)
Orange Cockatoo Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 5.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Orange
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised
Family: Cichlidae

The Apistogramma cacatuoides is commonly known as the Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid or Big Mouth Apistogramma. The Apistogramma originates in the streams and backwaters of South America. This strain has been selectively bred for its brilliant orange coloration. The body of these fish is elongated, with a prominent dorsal fin. The rear part of the dorsal fin, as well as the tail, has a striking orange coloration.

The Orange Cockatoo Cichlid should be kept in an aquarium that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, the Apistogramma is also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish. They require good water conditions, and regular water changes are a must.

The Orange Cockatoo Cichlid is an egg layer that prefers to spawn in caves. Once the female has laid her eggs, the male will follow to fertilize them. After fertilization, the male then leaves the brood for the female to tend to. The fry will be free swimming within seven to ten days, at which time they should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp. They are a fast growing species, and the fry will reach sexual maturity in about five months.

The Orange Cockatoo Cichlid is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid

(Cichlasoma sp.)
  Click here for a larger image
Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Easy
Tank Conditions: 72-80F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 8"
Color Form: Red, Silver
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid is farm raised in the USA, and is the result of crossbreeding different Central American Cichlids. These fish have an elongated body with large pronounced dorsal and anal fins. The juvenile form is silver in coloration, which turns into a bright red as they mature. A mature fish with complete coloration will be about 5 inches in length.

The Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid requires an aquarium of at least 50 gallons, with a sandy bottom, rocks and plenty of hiding places among the rocks. Live plants should be planted in pots to protect the roots from these fish. They are territorial and will eat smaller fish or invertebrates that they can swallow.

The Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid is difficult to distinguish between the male and female. The females are typically less brightly colored and smaller then the males. Neutral water with soft to medium hardness, a pH of approximately 7.0, and temperatures of 78-82F is recommended. Red Star Flower Horn Cichlids are open breeders that need well-oxygenated water. They spawn in burrows, laying up to 500 eggs. The fry are well protected by the parents, and once mated, they will continue to spawn once the fry have grown.

The Red Star Flower Horn Cichlid is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Peacock Bass (Ocellaris)

(Cichlia ocellaris)
Peacock Bass (Ocellaris)
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 75-81F;
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 2'
Color Form: Olive, White, Yellow
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Northern South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Peacock Bass, which is also known as the Peacock Cichlid, the Butterfly Peacock Bass and the Eye Spot Cichlid, is best known as a game fish. Peacock Bass have long bodies and deeply notched dorsal fins. They have large mouths and the lower jaw extends beyond the upper jaw. There is a large black eye spot encircled by a gold colored ring at the base of the caudal fin. Their background color is olive-green dorsally blending to yellow-white ventrally, with three darker bars on their sides, between which are a series of dark spots.

A unique characteristic of the Peacock Bass is the deep indention that separates the hard spines from the soft rays on the dorsal fin. The front of the dorsal, upper caudal, and pectoral fins are gray to black, the anal, pelvic and the lower caudal fins have a red tint. White spots are present on the second dorsal and the upper lobe of the caudal fin. Large adults have a yellow-orange stripe which extends from their mouth to their caudal fin. The iris is deep red.

The Peacock Bass requires a tank of no less than 70 gallons with a sand or gravel bottom. Some stones for cover and flat stones for potential spawning are also needed. The edges of the tank as well as the background can be planted and the plant roots will also be used as cover. Peacock Bass do not have any special demands when it comes to water chemistry and because of their predatory nature, should only be kept in a species only tank. They are only suitable for the home aquarium as juveniles.

Older male Peacock Bass have a large nuchal hump and other than this characteristic, the sexes can only be differentiated during the spawning act. Successful aquarium breeding has not been recorded, but in the wild, spawning will take place at water temperatures from 79-82F and eggs are adhered to hard substrates in pits in shallow waters. The female will spawn over 10,000 eggs and both parents will guard the young for well over a month.

The Peacock Bass is a carnivore and will eat fish and earthworms along with most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton. Flake food and Cichlid pellets are also recommended.

Texas Cichlid

(Herichthys cynoguttatus)
Texas Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 68-75F; pH 6.5-7.5; KH 5-12
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Gold
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Northern Mexico, Texas
Family: Cichlidae

The Texas Cichlid, also known as the Rio Grande Perch and the Rio Grande Cichlid, is an iridescent golden color with pearl highlights and white dots on its body and fins. There are several small black spots at the base of the caudal fin and along the middle, rear half of the body. The juveniles have an iridescent pearl-gray body with white dots on the body and fins. There is a black dot at the base of the caudal fin and one in the center of the body. They are also leaner in size.

The Texas Cichlid requires a tank of at least 50 gallons, with a fine sand bottom. There should be rocks and roots for them to hide among. The plants should be hardy as the Texas Cichlid will burrow around and attack them. The Texas Cichlid uses floating plants as a cover. The tank should be divided into territories using hardy plants, if possible. The Texas Cichlid is sensitive to old water and requires frequent changes of 1/4-1/2 of the water weekly. They are territorial and somewhat waspish, so care should be taken when choosing tank mates. Choose other more aggressive fish to share an aquarium with the Texas Cichlid.

It is difficult to distinguish between the male and female Texas Cichlid. The females are less brightly colored and usually smaller then the males. Older males will develop a cranial bump typical in some cichlids. Neutral water with soft to medium hardness, a pH of approximately 7.0, and temperatures of 77-82F is recommended. Texas Cichlids are open breeders that need well-oxygenated water. They spawn on cleaned rocks, laying up to 500 eggs. The fry are suspended from stones and guarded by both parents. The Texas Cichlid is not as diligent a parent as some cichlids and may eat their spawn.

Texas Cichlids is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid

(Taeniacara candidi)
Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 6.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Black
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Taeniacara candidi is known in the hobby as the Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid, and originates within the Amazon Basin of South America. The bodies of these fish are extremely slender and elongated, and have a dark stripe that runs horizontally from the nose to the base of the tail. Another distinguishing feature is its unusually low dorsal fin.

The Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid should be kept in a tank that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, they are also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish. They require good water conditions, and regular water changes are a must.

The Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid is an egg layer that prefers to spawn on the underside of leaves or pieces of driftwood. Once the female has laid her eggs, the male will follow to fertilize them. After fertilization, the male then leaves the brood for the female to tend to. The fry will be free swimming within seven to ten days, at which time they should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp. They are a fast growing species, and the fry will reach sexual maturity in about five months.

The Black Stripe Dwarf Cichlid is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Panda Dwarf Cichlid

(Apistogramma njessini)
Panda Dwarf Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 6.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Black, Blue, Red, Yellow
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: South America
Family: Cichlidae

The Apistogramma nijsseni is known in the hobby as the Panda Dwarf Cichlid, and originates within the Amazon Basin of South America. The male of this species has a yellow coloration, which turns into blue as it progresses to the rear of the fish. The caudal fin is rounded and outlined in red. The female of this species is almost entirely yellow in coloration with three or four black spots on its side. This fish will change coloration depending on its mood.

The Panda Dwarf Cichlid should be kept in an aquarium that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, they are also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish. They require good water conditions, and regular water changes are a must.

The Panda Dwarf Cichlid is an egg layer that prefers to spawn within a cave. Once the female has laid her eggs, the male will follow to fertilize them. After fertilization, the male then leaves the brood for the female to tend to. The fry will be free swimming within seven to ten days, at which time they should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp. They are a fast growing species, and the fry will reach sexual maturity in about five months.

The Panda Dwarf Cichlid is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Port Acara

(Aequidens portalegrensis)
Port Acara
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-80F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 5"
Color Form: Black, Brown
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Central America, Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Port Acara is a beautifully marked cichlid. Its body is mottled brown with a dark horizontal line running from the eye back to the tail. The scales are outlined in black giving these fish a very distinctive look. Adding further to their beauty, tones of red, greens and blues will develop with age and in times of spawning. The males of this species have longer pointed dorsal and anal fins. These are an easy to breed fish that do well in a community aquarium with other fish of similar size.

The Port Acara requires an aquarium of at least 30-gallons, with a sandy bottom, rocks and plenty of hiding places among the rocks. Live plants should be planted in pots to protect the roots from these fish. The Port Acara is generally peaceful with other fish of similar size, but can get territorial during breeding time.

The Port Acara is an open-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. To promote breeding, raise aquarium temperature to 78-82F. The Blue Acara readily pairs and forms a patriarch/matriarch family and both the male and female will care for the young. The female will lay the eggs on a cleaned rock. They will spawn about every two weeks if the young are removed from the aquarium.

The Port Acara is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Blue Acara

(Aequidens pulcher)
  Click here for a larger image
Blue Acara
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-80F; pH 6.5-8.0; KH 9-20
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 8"
Color Form: Bright Blue, Brown
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Central America, Farm Raised
Family: Cichlidae

The Blue Acara is a beautifully marked cichlid. Its body is mottled brown with many electric blue spots throughout. These blue spots form lines on the mouth area giving them a distinctive look. The males of this species have longer pointed dorsal and anal fins, which are outlined in red. These are an easy to breed fish that do well in a community aquarium with other fish of similar size.

The Blue Acara requires an aquarium of at least 50-gallons, with a sandy bottom, rocks and plenty of hiding places among the rocks. Live plants should be planted in pots to protect the roots from these fish. The Blue Acara is generally peaceful with other fish of similar size, but can get territorial during breeding time.

The Blue Acara is an open-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. To promote breeding, raise aquarium temperature to 78-82F. The Blue Acara readily pairs and forms a patriarch/matriarch family and both the male and female will care for the young. The female will lay the eggs on a cleaned rock. They will spawn about every two weeks if the young are removed from the aquarium.

The Blue Acara is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid

(Apistogramma agassizi)
Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 72-86F; pH 6.0-7.0; KH 2-15
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 3"
Color Form: Bright Red
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Carnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised
Family: Cichlidae

The Apistogramma agassizi is known in the hobby as the Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid which originates within the Amazon Basin of South America. This variation is tank-raised and has been bred for its brilliant red coloration within the dorsal and caudal fins. The body of these fish is elongated with a dark horizontal stripe. The dorsal fin extends almost the entire length of the body and is held low on the body with red outlines. These fish will change coloration depending on its mood.

The Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid should be kept in an aquarium that is 30 gallons minimum, with densely planted groupings. They require plenty of open swimming areas but also need hiding places. A fine gravel to sand substrate is recommended. Although a semi-aggressive fish, they are also timid and should not be housed with large, aggressive fish. They require good water conditions, and regular water changes are a must.

The Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid is an egg layer that prefers to spawn within a cave. Once the female has laid her eggs, the male will follow to fertilize them. After fertilization, the male then leaves the brood for the female to tend to. The fry will be free swimming within seven to ten days, at which time they should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp. They are a fast growing species, and the fry will reach sexual maturity in about five months.

The Double Full Red Agassizi Cichlid is a carnivore, and will consume a wide variety of foods. Freeze-dried bloodworms and tubifex, flake food, and both frozen and live brine shrimp and worms will make excellent food for these fish.

Uaru Cichlid

(Uara amphiacanthoides)
 
Uaru Cichlid
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons
Care Level: Moderate
Tank Conditions: 75-83F; pH 5.0-7.0; KH 2-5
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 10"
Color Form: Black, Brown, Green, Silver
Temperament: Semi-aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Farm Raised, USA
Family: Cichlidae

The Uaru Cichlid, also known as the Triangle Cichlid, is originally from the backwaters of the Amazon basin of South America and is now being captive bred. The coloration of these fish at maturity is mostly brown with a prominent horizontal black stripe covering the mid-section. Immature specimens are mottled in brown and black. They will typically achieve their adult coloration at about 4 inches in size.

The Uaru Cichlid requires a minimum aquarium size of 70 gallons or more with a fine gravel bottom. Plenty of rocks, driftwood and even flowerpots are recommended for hiding. They are a peaceful fish that is territorial and rarely aggressive, except during spawning. It can easily be kept with other medium-sized cichlids such as Convicts, Firemouths, and Parrots.

It is difficult to differentiate between the male and female Uaru Cichlid. It is best to incorporate 4 to 6 juveniles into an aquarium and allow them to pair off. They will form lasting pairs and make a nuclear family. The fry are usually well cared for, but the parents may eat some of them. Water should have a pH of 5.5 to 7.0 with an ideal temperature of 79-83F. Uaru Cichlid are open breeders and the female will drop from 100 to 1000 eggs. The female will circulate water over the eggs by fanning them with her fins, carefully guarding them in pits. After hatching, the fry will feed upon the slime coat of the parents until they become large enough to accept prepared foods. Feed the fry baby brine shrimp, ground flake foods and other foods designed for freshwater fry.

Uaru Cichlids are omnivores, and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets.

Surinamen Geophagus

(Geophagus surunimsis)
Surinamen Geophagus
Quick Stats
Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons
Care Level: Difficult
Tank Conditions: 72-77F; pH 6.9-7.1; KH 9-11
Max. Size In Aquarium: Up to 1'
Color Form: Amber
Temperament: Aggressive
Diet:  Omnivore
Compatibility: View Chart
Origin: Guyana to the Amazon
Family: Cichlidae

The Surunimis Geophagus, also known as the Redstripe Eartheater, the Mother-of-Pearl Eartheater, and the Opalescent Eartheater, has a long nose with eyes set high on the head and amber in color. Surunimis Geophagus has a gray-black blotch on its side, resembling an ink smudge. The background color is olive-green to pearl gray, with iridescent blue-green stripes on its sides and small iridescent blue spots on its fins, with the exception of the pectoral fins. Wild Surunimis Geophagus exhibit deep red lateral stripes, which fade in captivity.

The Surunimis Geophagus requires a tank of 30 gallons or larger with a sandy bottom and flat rocks. The rear of the tank should have caves made from stones and roots, and the edges of the tank should be decorated with hardy, potted plants. They are confirmed burrowers, and care should be taken when creating the caves, so that they do not collapse. The Surunimis Geophagus can be kept in tanks with large catfish as tank mates.

The Surunimis Geophagus will pair up and form nuclear families. They are territorial and extremely aggressive during spawning. The Surunimis Geophagus are larvophile mouth brooders, meaning they lay eggs and right before or as the larvae hatch both the female and the male take them into their mouths for protection.

The Surunimis Geophagus is an omnivore and will eat most prepared and frozen foods including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as flake food and cichlid pellets.

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